عنوان مقاله [English]
Criticism, power and ideology are among the common concepts among all dominant approaches in critical discourse analysis. The purpose of critical discourse analysis is to reveal the hidden ideological structures in internal and external layers of the texts. Partition Literature Discourse deals with dissolution of British Raj and division of Indian subcontinent. In his novel Train to Pakistan (1956), Khushwant Singh (1915-2014), the founder of “Partition Literature”, has shown the fundamental role of power structures in the representation of social ideologies. He has made "linguistic innovations" in English language through “Loan Translation”, “Semantic Indianization”and “Anglicized Native Idiomatic Expressions”. In line with Khushwant Singh’s ideas, Van Dijk (1997) believes that critical discourse analysis is is theory-oriented rather than subject-oriented, and this theorizing should be aimed at understanding social inequalities. The hypothesis of this research, considering three variables namely, loaner dialects, discourse strategies and translation strategies, is that Khushwant Singh has priorized the technique of “Calque” from Indian dialect in order to preserve cultural elements of “Source Language” in “Target Language” and enrich English as the borrower language. In other words, Singh has tried to nativize English language by using linguistic elements.
Review of Literature and Methodology:
Conducting research on critical discourse analysis has a long record in literature, history, psychology and linguistics. However, no research has been done on Khushwant Singh and “Indian Partition Literature” based on Van Dijk’s model of critical discourse analysis. A small number of articles on the subject of “Indian Partition Literature” are merely political or historical in nature. Van Dijk’s model of critical discourse analysis include six general components “Semantic”, “Syntax”, “Stylistic”, “Argumentation”, “Rhetoric” Speech Act” (Action and Interaction) strategies(Kasaei,2014:22). These strategies reveal the ideologies of speakers in surface and hidden layers of the text. Van Dijk’s ideological square deals with social, cultural and psychological aspects of human behavior. It is shaped on four main principles, namely, “Emphasis on positive representation of the in-group”, “Emphasis on negative representation of the out-group”, “De-emphasis of the negative properties of the in-group” and “De-emphasis of the positive properties of the out-group” (Van Dijk, 1998:267). In this study we seek to show Khushwant Singh’s language innovations and the effects of Indian native dialects in Train to Pakistan (1956) with a multidisciplinary approach. Besides, based on Van Dijk’s model of critical discourse analysis, the multifaceted relations between language, culture and society in the selected novel will be investigated.
4.1. Rhetorical Structures:
In this historical novel, Khushwant Singh presents a realistic picture of India's post-independence conflicts in Engliah language by making use of rhetorical strategies and adopting calques from Indian dialect. Van Dijk defines social cognition as “system of mental representations and processing of group members” (Van Dijk, 1998: 18). Rhetorical strategies comprise an important part of the discourse context at macro level, which Van Dijk considers based on the conceptual meaning of cognition and a manifestation of the mental image of a communication situation. Generally, this is the the same goal that rhetorical structures pursue for “ideological backgrounding” in the long-term memory of human society.
By utilizing figures of speech such as simile in various situations, Khushwant Singh highlights the shortcomings of his own religious community and Muslims to the same extent. He makes use of “Innovative Similies” which are derived from Indian language:
Table.1 Rhetorical Strategy of Simile in the Novel
You snored like a railway engine.(P.64)
Persian Literary Translation
مثل موتور راه آهن خروپف کردی
خُرُ و پُفت مثل سوت قطار بلند شد.(ص.124)
aapane rel injan kee tarah kharraate lie
आपने रेल इंजन की तरह खर्राटे लिए
آپًنِ رِلً ِانًجِنً کِ تَرِه کَراتِ لییِه
In the novel, the simile phrase “Like a railway engine” is equal to “like a bear” in Standard English. Khushwant Singh has used its Indian equivalence, ، “rel injan (रेल इंजन)” to localize the English language.
4.2. Semantic Structures:
Semantic indianization is one of Khushwant Singh’s language innovations, which he often uses to depicting religious distancing and ideological differences in Indian society.
Table.2 Semantic Strategy of Distancing in the Novel
We cannot really play this stabbing game.(P.18)
Persian Literary Translation
ما هندوها واقعاً نمیتوانیم این بازی چاقوکشی را انجام دهیم
این چیزا در مرام ما هندوها نیست.(ص.29)
ham vaastav mein chhura ghompane ka yah khel nahin khel sakate
हम वास्तव में छुरा घोंपने का यह खेल नहीं खेल सकते
هَمً واستاوً مِ چُورا گُمپانِه کا یِ کِل نِهی کِل ساکًتِه
Khushwant Singh has selected “stabbing game” for the English text by adopted the descriptive composition of “chhura ghompane (छुरा घोंपने का)” from Indian language. This kind of selection is in line with Van Dijk’s ideological square(2006)and, intentionally or unintentionally, institutionalizes the distance between Hindus and Muslims.
Train to Pakistan (1956), masterpiece of Indian Partition Literature, is a “Hybrid Text” and a combination of different dialects and cultures. Khushwant Singh’s frequent and conscious use of “Calque” in the novel Train to Pakistan, reflects the author's style and intention which should be taken into account in the translation process and the manner of transferring it to the translated text.
He utilizes the “Global Language” of English as a powerful tool to introduce the Indian cultural values and the structure of the native dialects of his country. Discourses, signs and linguistic morphemes in Train to Pakistan remind the native atmosphere of India for the audience and have a great impact in localizing and hybridizing of its the English text. Singh has used various techniques such as calque, modulation, euphemism and substitution to preserve the beauty of words. These techniques paly a key role in identifying the socio-cultural differences known in two linguistic societies.
The overt or hidden ideologies in the discourse of this novel reproduce in-group or out-group social polarities. Characters’ discources in the novel comply with Van Dijk’s ideological strategy in micro and macro levels. Khushwant Singh blames all social classes for disrupting peaceful coexistence. His literary masterpiece is a clear mirror of the dual human nature and a reflection of the structure of social ideology, which plays a tremendous role in promoting world peace.